Blood pressure circadian rhythms and adverse outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients diagnosed with orthostatic hypotension

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Patients with diabetes frequently develop orthostatic hypotension (OH). The present study was designed to examine the relationship of blood pressure (BP) circadian rhythms and outcomes in diabetes with OH.

Materials and Methods:

In the present study, 173 inpatients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Patients were divided into an OH group and a non-OH group according to the BP changes detected in the supine and standing position. Then, 24-h ambulatory BP was monitored. Patients were followed up for an average of 45 ± 10 months post-discharge. Outcomes – death and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, including heart failure, myocardial infarction and stroke – were recorded.


There were 61 patients (35.26%) in the OH group and 112 patients (64.74%) in the non-OH group. In the OH group, the night-time systolic BP and night-time diastolic BP were higher, the blood BP rhythms were predominantly of the riser type (67.21%). OH was as an independent marker of riser type circadian rhythm (adjusted odds ratio 4.532, 95% confidence interval 2.579–7.966). In the OH group, the incidence rates of mortality, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events were increased significantly compared with those in the non-OH group (11.48 vs 2.68%, P = 0.014; 37.70 vs 8.93%, P < 0.01).


In patients who had type 2 diabetes diagnosed with OH, the BP circadian rhythm usually showed riser patterns, and they had increased rates of mortality, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events.

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