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To assess the overall safety of lixisenatide monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, previously treated with ≤1 oral antidiabetic drug, were enrolled in an uncontrolled, open-label, single-arm study over 24 and 52 weeks. Any oral antidiabetic drug treatment was stopped at the start of the 6-week run-in period. From baseline, patients received once-daily lixisenatide monotherapy (10 μg for 1 week, 15 μg for 1 week, 20 μg thereafter) for 52 weeks (first 140 patients enrolled) or 24 weeks (subsequently enrolled patients). The primary end-point was safety over 24 and 52 weeks. Secondary efficacy end-points included absolute change in glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose and bodyweight from baseline.Of 428 patients screened, 361 and 140 were treated for 24 and 52 weeks, respectively; 88.4 and 90.0% completed treatment. During the 24- and 52-week treatment periods, 268/361 (74.2%) and 117/140 (83.6%) patients, respectively, had treatment-emergent adverse events; the most frequently reported was nausea (33.2 and 31.4%, respectively). The risk of severe hypoglycemia was low; only one case was reported. Lixisenatide treatment resulted in a decrease in mean glycated hemoglobin A1c (−0.98 and −0.86%), fasting plasma glucose (−1.05 and −0.85 mmol/L), and bodyweight (−1.33 and −1.48 kg) for the 24- and 52-week treatment periods, respectively.Once-daily lixisenatide monotherapy was associated with a safety profile in line with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist class, and improved glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.