A meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of yoga in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Materials and Methods
The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched to obtain eligible randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome was fasting blood glucose, and the secondary outcomes included glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and postprandial blood glucose. Weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The I2 statistic represented heterogeneity.Results
A total of 12 randomized controlled trials with a total of 864 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled weighted mean differences were −23.72 mg/dL (95% CI −37.78 to −9.65; P = 0.001; I2 = 82%) for fasting blood glucose and −0.47% (95% CI −0.87 to −0.07; P = 0.02; I2 = 82%) for hemoglobin A1c. The weighted mean differences were −17.38 mg/dL (95% CI −27.88 to −6.89; P = 0.001; I2 = 0%) for postprandial blood glucose, −18.50 mg/dL (95% CI −29.88 to −7.11; P = 0.001; I2 = 75%) for total cholesterol, 4.30 mg/dL (95% CI 3.25 to 5.36; P < 0.00001; I2 = 10%) for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, −12.95 mg/dL (95% CI −18.84 to −7.06; P < 0.0001; I2 = 37%) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and −12.57 mg/dL (95% CI −29.91 to 4.76; P = 0.16; I2 = 48%) for triglycerides.Conclusions
The available evidence suggests that yoga benefits adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, considering the limited methodology and the potential heterogeneity, further studies are necessary to support our findings and investigate the long-term effects of yoga in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.