Allelic variant inCTLA4is associated with thyroid failure and fasterβ-cell exhaustion in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

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Abstract

Background:

The aim of the study was to investigate the role of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) G6230A variant on the susceptibility of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) as a whole and in the subset of patients who share autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD).

Methods:

The study included 202 LADA, 1373 patients with early onset type 1 diabetes (T1D), 130 patients with late-onset T1D, 188 patients with non-autoimmune diabetes and 1904 healthy controls. Thyrotropin (thyrotropin-stimulating hormone; TSH) and antibodies against thyroid peroxidase were analyzed in all patients. The CTLA4 G6230A variant was assessed in LADA, early and late-onset T1D patients as well as in the controls.

Results:

The frequency of CTLA4 G alleles and genotypes in LADA patients did not differ significantly from that in the other groups, regardless of its association with AITD. We found an increased frequency of G allele-containing genotypes within LADA patients who had higher TSH compared with those with normal TSH (P = 0.002). Moreover, LADA patients carrying G allele-containing genotypes were more likely to require insulin therapy within 4 years of diagnosis (P = 0.002).

Conclusions:

The G6230A CTLA4 variant does not confer susceptibility to LADA in Sardinian patients even when associated with AITD. However, it helps identify a particular subset of LADA patients with more clinically severe disease, both for thyroid dysfunction and diabetes.

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