To update past meta-analyses on occupational electromagnetic fields (EMF) and adult brain cancer and leukemia.Methods:
We collected and evaluated all relevant 1993 to 2007 publications. Summary estimates were obtained using various weighting schemes. To explore sources of heterogeneity, study characteristics were examined using regression analysis.Results:
Overall, for new studies, both brain cancer and leukemia showed small increases in risk estimates, 10% and 13%, respectively. Notably, pooled risk estimates were lower than in past meta-analyses, and leukemia subtypes showed no consistent pattern when past and present meta-analyses were compared.Conclusions:
The lack of a clear pattern of EMF exposure and outcome risk does not support a hypothesis that these exposures are responsible for the observed excess risk. Findings were not sensitive to assumptions, influential studies, weighting schemes, publication bias, study characteristics, or funding source.