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Increase knowledge of US coal miners’ respiratory health by linking data from the black lung benefits program (BLBP) and the coal workers’ health surveillance program (CWHSP).BLBP claims data from 2000 through 2013 was linked to CWHSP data from 1970 through 2016.Overall, 273,644 miners participated in CWHSP, 37,548 in BLBP, and 22,903 in both programs. Median age of miners at their time of first/only participation in CWHSP was 28 and 32 years, respectively. BLBP claimants were older (median age 59). Thirty-nine percent of BLBP claimants had not participated in CWHSP. The relative contributions of states to participation differed between CWHSP and BLBP. For example, Kentucky miners accounted for 18% of CWHSP participants, but 36% of BLPB participants.Many BLBP claimants never appeared in CWHSP, indicating missed opportunities for secondary prevention.