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The objective of this study was to investigate modifiable early-injury factors which are associated with self-efficacy to return-to-work (RTW-SE) and explore whether these factors are different for people with psychological or upper-body musculoskeletal (UB-MSK) injuries.The study used a sample of workers with a UB-MSK (N = 244) or psychological (N = 113) injury who were off work. Differences between injury types were investigated across variables related to: (1) communication with RTW stakeholders; and (2) components of the job itself. A stratified and multigroup analysis was conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM).Injury-stratified models revealed no significant differences. In a combined model, higher job autonomy and low-stress contact from the RTW coordinator remained significantly associated with higher RTW-SE.Job autonomy and low-stress contact from the RTW coordinator are possible areas to target to increase self-efficacy among injured workers.