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The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between work engagement, productivity, and self-reported work-related sedentary behavior in Japanese adults.The present study recruited 2572 Japanese individuals (20–59 years old) via an internet survey and assessed their demographic characteristics, work-related characteristics, and sedentary behavior. Data were analyzed with logistic regression.The mean proportion of work days involving work-related sedentary behavior was approximately 70% and the mean number of weekly working hours was approximately 43 hours. Among those aged 40 to 59 years, work-related sedentary behavior was associated with low work vigor (odds ratio: 1.43), dedication (1.61), absorption (1.39), and total score of work engagement (1.49). Among those aged 20 to 39 years, work-related sedentary behavior was associated with low efficiency (1.38).Reducing work-related sedentary behavior may improve workers’ engagement and productivity.