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Recent findings suggest that laboring in hot occupational environments is related to kidney damage in agricultural workers. We examined hydration status and kidney function in 192 Florida agricultural workers.Blood and urine samples were collected over 555 workdays during the summers of 2015 and 2016. Urine-specific gravity (USG), serum creatinine, and other kidney function markers were examined pre- and post-shift on each workday. Multivariable mixed modeling was used to examine the association of risk factors with hydration status and acute kidney injury (AKI).Approximately 53% of workers were dehydrated (USG ≥1.020) pre-shift and 81% post-shift; 33% of participants had AKI on at least one workday. The odds of AKI increased 47% for each 5-degree (°F) increase in heat index.A strikingly high prevalence of dehydration and AKI exists in Florida agricultural workers.