Association Between Urinary Cadmium and QRS|T Angle Among Adults in the United States

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Cadmium's effect on QRS|T angle has not been studied. An abnormal QRS|T angle deviation may increase the risk for ventricular dysrhythmias.


We calculated the orientation of spatial QRS|T angle using QRS and T amplitudes of leads V2, V5, V6, and AVF from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III. Cadmium concentration was measured in urine. We fit weighted unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions to calculate odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals.


A unit increase in the logarithm of urinary cadmium increased the odds of QRS|T angle deviation by 30% [1.30 (1.01 to 1.61)].


Cadmium exposure was associated with an abnormal QRS|T angle in women but not in men. Women exposed to cadmium should be periodically evaluated to detect QRS|T angle deviation, which can predispose them to ventricular dysrhythmias.

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