Dual protection to address the global syndemic of HIV and unintended pregnancy in Brazil

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BackgroundSyndemic HIV and unintended pregnancy is prevalent in Brazil, where 79% of female HIV cases occur in women of reproductive age and 55% of all pregnancies are unintended. Although increasing condom use to prevent HIV may decrease non-barrier contraception and increase unintended pregnancy, few studies focus on dual protection or dual methods (condoms with another modern contraceptive).AimTo describe the correlates of dual method use and consistent condom use in women of reproductive age in Brazil.MethodData are from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Mulher e da Criança, a decennial nationally representative household survey of women of reproductive age in Brazil. Multivariate logistic regression models identify the socio-demographic, sexual debut, fertility and relationship factors associated with dual method use and consistent condom use.ResultsTwo-thirds of contracepting women in Brazil used dual protection (40% exclusive condoms, 27% dual methods). Consistent condom use in the past year occurred among 61% of exclusive condom users and 27% of dual method users. Dual methods (vs exclusive condoms) was associated with some high school education [relative risk ratio (RRR)=1.69, p<0.05], living in the Southern region (RRR=1.59, p<0.01), and number of children (RRR=1.22, p<0.01), net of other factors. Consistent condom use was associated with condom use at sexual debut [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.84, p<0.001], wants no (more) children (AOR=1.86, p<0.001), single/separated relationship status (AOR=2.77/2.45, p<0.001) and using exclusive condoms (vs dual methods: AOR=0.19, p<0.001).ConclusionsFindings highlight that targeting and delivering integrated HIV and family planning services should focus on completed/large families. single/separated individuals, and promoting dual protection at sexual debut.

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