Skull and Encephalic Injuries Caused by Beach Umbrellas: Case Reports and Review of Literature

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Abstract

This study reports two unusual cases of skull-encephalic injuries in bathers that were caused by violent impacts with beach umbrellas. The first case concerned a 36-year-old man who, while lying on a sun bed, was struck on his left temple by a beach umbrella, which had been blown away by a gust of wind. The second case concerned a six-year-old child who was struck on the right temporal region while he was playing on the sand. Both subjects died. A review of the literature was carried out. Various skull and brain injuries caused by several objects were found, but no injuries caused by beach umbrellas were detected. There were only cases of injuries caused by normal umbrellas. These cases showed that several objects can be responsible for traumas causing skull and brain injuries, therefore forensic investigation must be supplemented by circumstantial data.

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