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Evidence on the effects of disclosing carrier results identified through newborn screening (NBS) is needed to develop effective strategies for managing these results, and to inform debate about contradictory policies governing genetic testing in minors in the context of NBS relative to clinical care. This is likely to be even more important as technological opportunities for carrier identification through NBS increase. We report the results of a systematic review of evidence related to the generation of carrier results through NBS to summarize what is known about: (1) the outcomes associated with these results; (2) the best strategies for providing information and follow-up care to parents; and (3) the impact they have on reproductive decision-making. Our study expands the existing body of knowledge and identifies gaps in the evidence base. As key players in the management of carrier results clinically, genetic counselors are well positioned to engage in formative research and policy development in this area.