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Future contraceptives include refinements of existing contraceptives and totally new methods. New formulations of oral contraceptives, subdermal hormonal implants, injectable hormones, vaginal spermicides, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) are being tested around the world. New methods that are not yet available include the use of vaginal preparations containing sperm-immobilizing agents, gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonists and antagonists, vaccines against ava and sperm, and endogenous hormones. Male contraceptive methods use hormones to suppress testosterone and vaccines to immobilize sperm. The availability of all future contraceptives is dependent on ample funds for research, development, and testing, and such funds are in jeopardy.