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To identify factors that may influence parenting by mothers who are recovering from cocaine addiction.Exploratory descriptive, with in-depth unstructured interviews.Interviews were conducted in the woman's home or in a treatment center.A convenience sample of 11 women recovering from cocaine addiction who were mothers of children 3 years of age and younger.A content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Two themes, personal/psychologic factors and environmental/contextual factors, and four subthemes emerged. They identify issues that may affect parenting by mothers being treated for cocaine addiction. Subthemes included low self-esteem, difficulty developing a maternal identity, isolation from friends and family, and chronic life stress.This study provides a better understanding of the sources contributing to vulnerability in the parenting role for mothers recovering from cocaine addiction and will assist nurses in providing care for these mothers and their children.