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Women in developed countries who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive generally feed their infants formula to avoid virus transmission via breastfeeding. However, for most of the world's women who are HIV positive, the choice of infant feeding method is not so clear. Poor socioeconomic and living conditions place infants on breast milk substitutes at higher risk of non-HIV infectious diseases as compared with breastfed infants. Mothers in these settings who are HIV positive must weigh the risks and benefits of breastfeeding to choose the best infant feeding option.