Metabolic disorders in patients with recent gestational diabetes mellitus

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Abstract

Aim

To determine metabolic disorders in patients with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with controls.

Methods

Thirty-six patients with recent GDM and treated with a diabetic diet only, and 33 controls with normal pregnancies, were included in the study. An oral glucose tolerance test, with corresponding insulin and hormone levels, was performed; the homeostatic model assessment scores were calculated to estimate insulin resistance; prevalence of polycystic ovarian morphology on ultrasound scan was assessed; and results were recorded 10–15 months after delivery.

Results

Waist: hip ratio and fasting cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in women with recent GDM; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differ between groups. Fasting, 1-h and 2-h plasma glucose levels were significantly higher in the GDM group; no statistically significant difference was found between groups regarding fasting insulin levels, 1-h and 2-h insulin response, and homeostatic model assessment scores. Serum hormone levels did not differ between groups. The prevalence of polycystic ovarian morphology was greater in women with GDM. There was no difference in any metabolic parameter between women in the GDM group with polycystic ovaries and those with normal ovaries.

Conclusions

We found a higher prevalence of polycystic ovarian morphology in women with GDM than in controls. Among women with recent GDM, higher waist: hip ratios and fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels may indicate metabolic syndrome. In women with recent GDM managed by diet only, insulin resistance may not be detected in the short term.

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