To study the changes in the histological pattern, distribution and intensity of sex steroid receptors (estrogen and progesterone) and cell proliferation by Ki-67 expression by semi-quantitative scores in granulomatous and chronic non-specific endometritis in the premenstrual phase.Methods
A retrospective study was conducted on 20 cases of granulomatous endometritis, 10 of chronic non-specific endometritis and 30 age matched (±2 years) controls with no endometrial lesions. Morphological changes were noted on histological examination and semi-quantitative scoring of Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR) and Ki-67 expression was done by immunohistochemistry.Results
There was significantly higher ER, PR and Ki-67 expression in endometrial glandular and stromal cells in inflamed endometria as compared with the controls (all P-values < 0.02) regardless of the character of the inflammation. The cases with morphology not conforming to the secretory phase at which biopsy was taken had significantly higher ER, PR and Ki-67 expression in both endometrial and stromal cells indicating a lag in the endometrial maturation (all P-values < 0.02). Interestingly, all parameters except PR expression in glandular cells had a significantly higher expression even in cases with secretory morphology indicating disturbances in local milieu.Conclusion
Endometrial inflammation interferes with local expression of ER, PR and Ki-67. This may contribute to infertility regardless of other factors and other endometrial dysfunctional states.