The malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma is rare, thus occurring in only 1–2% of all cases. The most common malignancy arising in mature cystic teratoma is squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma occurs with less frequency. We herein present a patient with an ovarian mature cystic teratoma who demonstrated a malignant transformation to well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Malignant transformation was diagnosed preoperatively by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Microscopically and immunohistochemically, the adenocarcinoma was considered to have arisen from the ciliated respiratory epithelium. After a 28-month of follow-up period, she remains free of the disease. This is the third reported case of adenocarcinoma arising in the respiratory epithelium of an ovarian mature cystic teratoma. Contrast enhanced CT and MRI are useful for making a preoperative diagnosis and an immunohistochemical study is helpful for defining its origin.