Pure osteosarcoma arising from the uterus is extremely rare. Only 15 cases of this type of cancer have been reported to date. Most patients showed local or lung metastasis early after surgery and died within a year of treatment initiation, regardless of multimodality therapy, indicating that this tumor is aggressive with a poor prognosis. Herein, we report the first clinical experience treated with a combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine for local and lung metastasis from primary osteosarcoma of the uterus. Although the disease was considered stable after three cycles of treatment, new metastatic lesions appeared in the lungs after six cycles. The patient was asymptomatic for 13 months; however, she died two months after symptom recurrence. Our case demonstrates that a combined regimen of docetaxel and gemcitabine may be a sound therapeutic option to control primary osteosarcoma of the uterus.