It has been suggested that resistance training (RT) increases arterial stiffness. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effect of eccentric RT (ERT) and concentric RT (CRT) on arterial stiffness in female adults by an interventional study. In total, 29 healthy female subjects were randomly assigned to either the ERT group (n=10), CRT group (n=10) or sedentary (SED) group (n=9). The ERT and CRT groups performed resistance training three times a week for 8 weeks. We determined brachial blood pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), carotid artery intimamedial thickness (IMT) and carotid arterial lumen diameter before and after training and after detraining. The before-training baPWV did not differ significantly among the three groups. After 8 weeks of RT, arterial stiffness in the CRT group was increased compared with the ERT and SED group (P<0.05). However, brachial blood pressure, baPWV, carotid IMT and carotid lumen diameter in the ERT and CRT groups were unchanged by RT for 8 weeks. Consequently, it was clarified that arterial stiffness was not changed by ERT for 8 weeks. This suggests that ERT may be effective as an exercise prescription for middle-aged and elderly adults.