Interaction between GNB3 C825T and ACE I/D polymorphisms in essential hypertension in Koreans

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Essential hypertension (EH) is considered a typical polygenic disease, so the evaluation of gene-gene interactions rather than the determination of single gene effects is crucial to understanding any genetic influences. The G-protein β3-subunit (GNB3) 825T allele, associated with enhanced G-protein signalling, is a strong candidate for interactions with polymorphisms, such as insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. We investigated whether there is an association between GNB3 C825T and ACE I/D polymorphisms for the development of EH. We carried out a case-control study of 688 hypertensive and 924 normotensive subjects recruited from South Korea. The GNB3 C825T and ACE I/D genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods, respectively. The distributions of alleles and genotypes for the GNB3 C825T and ACE I/D polymorphisms were not found to be significantly associated with hypertensive status in either males or females. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the GNB3 825T allele carriers were positively associated with EH in males (odds ratio (OR) for TT/CT, 1.459; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.048-2.033, P = 0.0255). In analysis of gene-gene interaction, we found that there was a significant interaction between the GNB3 825T and ACE D alleles (P<0.05). OR for EH was significantly higher in 825T allele carriers with ACE D allele (OR, 1.490; 95% CI, 1.117-1.987, P = 0.0067). A significant interaction between the GNB3 825T and the ACE D alleles may contribute to the predisposing effect for the development of EH in Koreans.

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