Different effect of alcohol consumption on hypertension according to metabolic health status

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Abstract

We aimed to investigate whether the effect of problematic alcohol drinking on hypertension differed according to metabolic health statuses. Male participants from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were recruited. Problematic alcohol drinkers were designated as subjects with heavy drinking (≥30 g per day), binge drinking (≥7 glasses per day) or a high alcohol use disorders identification test score (≥20). Metabolically obese status was defined as having ≥1 or ≥2 components of the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, excluding the blood pressure component. Because the prevalence of problematic alcohol drinking and the prevalence of hypertension largely differed by age groups, separate analyses were performed for the two age groups (<50 and ≥50 years). Among a total of 6329 subjects, 37.04% had hypertension. In the younger age group, subjects with problematic alcohol drinking demonstrated a higher prevalence of hypertension in both nonobese and obese individuals compared with subjects who were nonobese and who were not problematic alcohol drinkers. Of note, problematic alcohol drinking increased the risk of having hypertension ˜3 times in young nonobese individuals who demonstrated a metabolically obese phenotype compared with those who were metabolically healthy. However, metabolic health status did not have a significant impact on the risk for having hypertension in obese participants, regardless of their age groups. For the prevention of hypertension, avoidance of problematic alcohol drinking should be emphasized, especially in young subjects who show poor metabolic health status despite being nonobese.

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