Arterial stiffness has similar risk factors to gallstone disease (GSD). However, there are few studies on the association between arterial stiffness and GSD. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between arterial stiffness and GSD in a Taiwanese population. We enroled 6211 subjects from a health examination centre after excluding those who received medications for diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia or had a history of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, cancer, cholecystectomy or ankle-brachial index of ≤ 0.9 or ≥ 1.3. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as right brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥ 1400 cm s-1. The diagnosis of GSD was based on ultrasonographic findings. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 47.2 and 31.9 % in subjects with and without GSD (P < 0.001). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that GSD, age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and current smoking were positively associated with baPWV, whereas male gender, BMI, habitual exercise and HDL-C were negatively related to baPWV after adjusting for other clinical variables. In conclusion, subjects with GSD are associated with an increased risk of arterial stiffness.