The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of hypertension in middle-aged people within the Tujia-Nationality settlement in China. Demographics questionnaires and fitness tests were performed to identify the risk factors of hypertension in middle-aged people in the years 2005, 2010 and 2014 in the area of southwest Hubei of China. Of the 2428 participants, 568 were classified as hypertensive, giving an overall occurrence of hypertension at 23.4%, and the prevalence of hypertension was the highest in the year 2014 (34.9%). Furthermore, Tujia minority had a significantly higher risk for having hypertension (odds ratio = 1.055 with 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.039-1.072; P = 0.001) than Han people. Individuals with the lowest level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) had a 2.483-fold risk for hypertension (95% CI, 1.530-4.031; P = 0.001). Obesity and overweight individuals increased the risk by 3.470-fold and 2.124-fold, respectively, for having hypertension compared to normal weight people. Finally, white-collar workers had a 58.1 and 31.8% higher risk for hypertension than blue-collar workers in rural and urban areas, respectively. These results demonstrated that the prevalence of hypertension was higher between 2011 and 2014 in the area. The main risk factors for developing hypertension were found to be sex (as woman), Tujia minority, white-collar workers, overweight-obese, those with a middle school education, and those with the lowest CRF.