This article provides an anatomical and biomechanical framework for the postoperative management and progression of treatment for shoulder arthroplasty. The clinical relevance of normal shoulder anatomy, biomechanics, and pathomechanics related to this surgery is emphasized to provide the reader with an understanding of the rationale for treatment. We review the rehabilitation implications of surgical indications and technique for both traditional total shoulder arthroplasty and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty procedures with an emphasis on biomechanical considerations. Relevant factors that affect rehabilitation outcomes are discussed along with supporting evidence from the literature. Principles to guide and progress treatment are highlighted with a discussion on return to sports with the ultimate objective of providing a comprehensive approach for successful rehabilitation.