Oral candidal carriage, salivary lysozyme levels, and their relationship with CD4 count in HIV-infected patients

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Abstract

Aim:

The aim of the present study was to compare the lysozyme concentration and candidal count in saliva between HIV-seropositive and HIV-negative individuals, and to correlate the relationship between lysozyme concentrations, candidal count, and CD4 count in HIV patients.

Methods:

A study was conducted in 90 HIV-seropositive patients (subgroups: 1 [CD4 ≥ 500 cells/μL], 2 [CD4 200–499 cells/μL], and 3 [CD4 ≤ 200 cells/μL] and 30 HIV-negative individuals. A total of 6 mL unstimulated saliva was collected and stored at −80°C. Samples were centrifuged and divided into two portions of 600 μL each. One portion was used for the candidal assay and the other for the lysozyme assay using readymade kits. Student's independent t-test and Karl Pearson correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis.

Results:

There was a significant increase (P < 0.001) in lysozyme levels and the candidal count in the saliva of HIV-positive individuals compared with the HIV-negative individuals. A significant increase (P < 0.004) in the salivary candidal count was observed in the HIV subgroups 1–3. There was a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between the CD4 and candidal counts in subgroup 1 (P < 0.02) and between the lysozyme concentration and CD4 count in subgroup 3. There was no correlation between the lysozyme concentration and oral candidal carriage.

Conclusions:

An association exists between the lysozyme concentration and specific immunity. Yeast colonization serves as a marker of immunodeficiency in HIV disease progression.

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