Reliability and validity of five radiographic dental-age estimation methods in a population of Malaysian children

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To evaluate the reliability and validity of Demirjian's, Willems, Nolla's, Haavikko's, and Cameriere's radiographic methods of dental-age estimation in a population of Malaysian children.


A total of 426 dental panoramic radiographs of 5–15-year-old Malaysian children were included in the study. The mean age error and absolute age error for all the methods were calculated and their usability analyzed.


The Nolla, Willems. and Demirjian methods overestimated the dental age with a mean of 0.97, 0.54, and 0.54 years, respectively, while the Cameriere and Haavikko methods underestimated by 0.41 and 1.31 years, respectively. The Cameriere method was highly precise and accurate in the population of Malaysian children, whereas the Haavikko and Demirjian methods were the least precise and accurate.


The Cameriere method of dental-age estimation is highly valid and reliable for Malaysian population, followed by the Willems and Nolla methods.

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