The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of surface roughness (roughness average [Ra] μm) on the hydrophobicity of a denture-base acrylic resin and the initial adherence and biofilm formation of Candida albicans (C. albicans).Methods:
Disk-shaped specimens were divided into six groups: Ra 0.05, Ra 0.2, Ra 0.4, Ra 0.8, Ra 1.5, and Ra 3.0. Water contact angles (WCA) were measured, and the specimens incubated with C. albicans for 90 min (initial adherence, n = 108) or 48 h (biofilm formation, n = 108). Adhered and biofilm cells were evaluated by c.f.u./mL and 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT), and the correlation between the two methods was evaluated. The surface of the specimens and cells (adhered and biofilm) were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Results:
Groups Ra 0.05 and 3.0 exhibited the lowest (˜75°) and the highest (˜100°) WCA mean values, respectively. For both initial adherence and biofilm formation, no statistically-significant differences were observed among all groups, as determined by c.f.u./mL and XTT. A positive correlation between these two methods was found. SEM analysis showed the presence of scratches and valleys on the acrylic specimens and densely-packed yeast cells covering the entire surface.Conclusions:
Roughness significantly increased hydrophobicity (WCA), but had no effect on the number and metabolic activity of adherent and biofilm cells of C. albicans.