Maternal samples were assessed from 96 women enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotypic zidovudine resistance at entry, if zidovudine resistance developed on study, and the role of zidovudine resistance in vertical transmission of HIV-1 despite zidovudine therapy. Low and high levels of genotypic resistance were assessed by differential hybridization, oligoligation, or direct sequencing of plasma HIV-1 RNA for codons K70R and T215Y/F. None of the women had high-level genotypic resistance to zidovudine at study entry or delivery. For low-level zidovudine resistance, the 95% confidence intervals were 0.3%-6.8% for baseline prevalence and 0.3%-14% for delivery incidence. Low-level zidovudine resistance, adjusted for plasma viral RNA level at delivery, was not strongly associated with an increase in vertical transmission risk (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-131; P = .35).