Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus has been recognized as a cause of systemic illness in immunocompromised hosts, including relapsing bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Acquired resistance to quinolone therapy, while reported for a variety of bacteria, including Campylobacter jejuni, has not been previously documented for C. fetus. Two cases of quinolone-resistant C. fetus bacteremia were detected in HIV-infected patients. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the C. fetus gyrA gene in the 2 resistant isolates demonstrated a G-to-T change that led to an Asp-to-Tyr amino acid substitution at a critical residue frequently associated with quinolone resistance. In addition, comparison of the pre- and posttreatment isolates from 1 patient documented outer membrane protein changes temporally linked with the development of resistance. Relapsing C. fetus infections in quinolone-treated HIV-infected patients may be associated with the acquisition of resistance to these agents, and this resistance may be multifactorial.