The therapeutic potential of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) was tested in a neutropenic rat model that mimics the clinical consequences of myelosuppressive chemotherapy complicated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis. rhIL-11-treated animals (150 μg/kg intravenously every 24 h for 3 days) had reduced endotoxin levels (P < .05) and less pulmonary edema fluid (P < .001) and were protected (P < .01) against thinning and necrosis of the intestinal mucosa compared with the control group. The survival rate in rhIL-11-treated animals was 40% (19/47), whereas it was 0 (0 of 19) in the control group (P < .01). The addition of ciprofloxacin (10 mg/kg every 12 h) resulted in a survival rate of 9 (60%) of 15, while the combination of rhIL-11 and ciprofloxacin resulted in 100% survival (15/15; P < .05). These results indicate that rhIL-11 supports mucous membrane integrity of the alimentary tract and decreases the systemic inflammatory response to experimental gram-negative infection in immunocompromised animals.