The safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiretroviral activity of lamivudine alone and in combination with zidovudine was studied in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and their neonates. Women received the drugs orally from week 38 of pregnancy to 1 week after delivery. Neonate therapy began 12 h after delivery and continued for 1 week. Both treatment regimens were well-tolerated in women and newborns. Lamivudine and zidovudine pharmacokinetics in pregnant women were similar to those in nonpregnant adults. Lamivudine and zidovudine freely crossed the placenta and were secreted in breast milk. Neonatal lamivudine clearance was about half that in pediatric patients; zidovudine clearance was consistent with previous reports. HIV-1 RNA could be quantified in 17 of the 20 women. At the onset of labor/delivery, mean virus load had decreased by ˜1.5 log10 copies/mL in both treatment cohorts. Although not definitive for HIV-1 infection status, all neonates had HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of quantification at birth and at ages 1 and 2 weeks.