Lung disease caused byMycobacterium avium complex(MAC) is increasing in prevalence. MAC disease occurs in patients with chronic preexisting obstructive pulmonary diseases but is also diagnosed in individuals with no history of lung pathology or identifiable immune defect. Histologically, the disease is characterized by either the development of nodular granulomatous lesions in the peribronchial region or cavitary peripheral disease in smokers. Response to long-term treatment is poor. Limited comparative-efficacy data on treatment exist.Amodel that resembles nodular MAC disease was established in C57 (bg+/bg+) mice infected intranasally. Therapy with clarithromycin, a compound commonly used to treatMACdisease, was evaluated in parallel with treatment using a new bicyclolide, EDP-420, that achieves high levels of intrapulmonary concentrations. Although clarithromycin administered daily resulted in a reduction in the bacterial load in the lung, EDP-420 administered either daily or twice a week was significantly more effective. These results suggest that this animal model can be used to evaluate novel regimens against MAC disease and that compounds with high concentration in the lung might have a significant impact on the outcome of MAC lung disease.