Persistent HIV Type 1 Seronegative Status Is Associated With Lower CD8+ T-Cell Activation

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We leveraged data from the Preexposure Prophylaxis Initiative (iPrEx), a global trial of preexposure chemoprophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, to compare T-cell activation between those who remained negative for HIV-1 and those who became infected during the trial. The frequency of CD38+HLA-DR+ CD8+ T cells was greater in those who seroconverted, relative to the frequency in those who remained uninfected (1.30% vs 0.82%, respectively; P = .005). This translated to an odds ratio of 4.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.54–11.78) for the association between CD8+ T-cell activation and infection with HIV-1. T-cell activation may be a biomarker for elevated HIV-1 infection risk.

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