Increasing evidence implicates human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the etiopathogenesis of breast cancer. Antibodies to this virus in patients with breast cancer have been reported, but no large-scale studies have been conducted to determine whether the antibody levels differ between patients and matched controls. Using specimens from a large (1712 subjects) multiethnic case-control study, we aimed to determine whether the levels of antibodies to the HCMV glycoprotein B (gB) differed between patients and controls and whether they were associated with particular immunoglobulin γ marker (GM), κ marker (KM), and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) genotypes. A combined analysis showed that anti-gB immunoglobulin G antibody levels were higher in healthy controls than in patients (P < .0001). Stratified analyses showed population-specific differences in the magnitude of anti-gB antibody responsiveness and in the contribution of particular GM, KM, and FcγR genotypes to these responses. These findings may have implications for HCMV-based immunotherapy against breast cancer and other HCMV-associated diseases.