Robust Cytokine and Chemokine Response in Nasopharyngeal Secretions: Association With Decreased Severity in Children With Physician Diagnosed Bronchiolitis

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


Background. Bronchiolitis causes substantial disease in young children. Previous findings had indicated that a robust innate immune response was not associated with a poor clinical outcome in bronchiolitis. This study tested the hypothesis that increased concentrations of cytokines and chemokines in nasal wash specimens were associated with decreased severity in bronchiolitis.

Methods. Children <24 months old who presented to the emergency department with signs and symptoms of bronchiolitis were eligible for enrollment. Nasal wash specimens were analyzed for viral pathogens and cytokine/chemokine concentrations. These results were evaluated with regard to disposition.

Results. One hundred eleven children with bronchiolitis were enrolled. A viral pathogen was identified in 91.9% of patients (respiratory syncytial virus in 51.4%, human rhinovirus in 11.7%). Higher levels of cytokines and chemokines (interferon [IFN] γ; interleukin [IL] 4, 15, and 17; CXCL10; and eotaxin) were significantly associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization. IL-17, IL-4, IFN-γ, and IFN-γ–inducible protein 10 (CXCL10 or IP-10) remained statistically significant in the multivariate analyses.

Conclusions. The cytokines and chemokines significantly associated with decreased bronchiolitis severity are classified in a wide range of functional groups (T-helper 1 and 2, regulatory, and chemoattractant). The involvement of these functional groups suggest that a broadly overlapping cytokine/chemokine response is required for control of virus-mediated respiratory disease in young children.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles