The 2013–2016 West African Ebola virus (EBOV) disease outbreak was the largest filovirus outbreak to date. Over 28 000 suspected, probable, or confirmed cases have been reported, with a 53% case-fatality rate. The magnitude and international impact of this EBOV outbreak has highlighted the urgent need for a safe and efficient EBOV vaccine. To this end, we demonstrate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of FILORAB1, a recombinant, bivalent, inactivated rabies virus–based EBOV vaccine, in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Our results demonstrate that the use of the synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A in stable emulsion (GLA-SE) as an adjuvant increased the efficacy of FILORAB1 to 100% protection against lethal EBOV challenge, with no to mild clinical signs of disease. Furthermore, all vaccinated subjects developed protective anti–rabies virus antibody titers. Taken together, these results support further development of FILORAB1/GLA-SE as an effective preexposure EBOV vaccine.