No Evidence That HIV-1 Subtype C Infection Compromises the Efficacy of Tenofovir-Containing Regimens: Cohort Study in the United Kingdom

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Abstract

Concern has been expressed that tenofovir-containing regimens may have reduced effectiveness in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C infections because of a propensity for these viruses to develop a key tenofovir-associated resistance mutation. We evaluated whether subtype influenced rates of virological failure in a cohort of 8746 patients from the United Kingdom who received a standard tenofovir-containing first-line regimen and were followed for a median of 3.3 years. In unadjusted analyses, the rate of failure was approximately 2-fold higher among patients infected with subtype C virus as compared to those with subtype B virus (hazard ratio [HR], 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50–2.31; P < .001). However, the increased risk was greatly attenuated in analyses adjusting for demographic and clinical factors (adjusted HR, 1.14; 95% CI, .83–1.58; P = .41). There were no differences between subtypes C and subtypes non-B and non-C in either univariate or multivariate analysis. These observations imply there is no intrinsic effect of viral subtype on the efficacy of tenofovir-containing regimens.

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