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The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) plays a key role in lateral patellofemoral stability, and there has been significant clinical and research interest in MPFL reconstruction (MPFLR) in recent years. The primary objective of this systematic review of clinical studies is to investigate the reported indications for an isolated MPFLR and secondarily to examine some of the reasons reported for not performing an isolated MPFLR. A comprehensive search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PUBMED, and Cochrane databases was conducted to identify surgical studies investigating MPFLR. Study information including author, publication date, sample size, patient age, follow-up period, procedure performed, surgical indications and contraindications, and study design were extracted. The most common indication for isolated MPFLR was recurrent patellofemoral instability (82.1%). Common reasons given for not performing an isolated MPFLR included bony malalignment (51.8%), trochlear dysplasia (30.4%), and patella alta (23.2%). This systematic review identified recurrent patellofemoral instability as the primary indication for an isolated MPFLR; however, a large number of the studies did not provide clear criteria for when an isolated MPFLR should be performed. Similarly, there was significant variability in the reasons given for not performing an isolated MPFLR.