The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is thought to be the most important medial structure providing restraint to lateral subluxation of the patella. After an initial patellar dislocation, the MPFL is frequently injured and can usually be treated with conservative measures. However, these patients often suffer from recurrent dislocations, which thereby necessitate operative intervention. In the setting of normal anatomy and kinematics, isolated reconstruction of the MPFL is an effective treatment for preventing recurrent dislocations. Various surgical techniques have been described, with differences in fixation and graft selection. The treatment of MPFL injuries should aim to provide patellar stabilization and restore normal kinematics throughout the joint. This review will discuss the following: (1) anatomy of the MPFL, (2) presentation and assessment of MPFL injuries, (3) management of patients with MPFL injuries, and (4) complications following MPFL reconstruction.