A sample of 259 patients with vertical maxillary hyperplasia, mandibular hypoplasia and anterior vertical open bite, collected from three different institutions, was analysed regarding temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds, condylar remodelling, and condylar resorption. All patients underwent Le Fort I osteotomies, and bilateral sagittal split advancement osteotomies were performed in 117 patients. Intraosseous wire fixation was used in 149 and rigid internal fixation in 110 patients. Cephalometric and orthopantomographic radiographs were available before surgery, immediately after surgery, one year postoperatively and at the latest follow up. The mean follow up was 69 months (range 20-210 months). The number of patients with TMJ sounds decreased from 38% to 31%. At the latest follow up 23.6% of the patients showed condylar remodelling, 7.7% unilateral condylar resorption and 7.7% bilateral condylar resorption. Condylar contours, as assessed on orthopantomographic radiographs, were classified as five different types. Condyles with preexisting radiological signs of osteoarthrosis or having a posterior inclination were at high risk for progressive resorption. Female patients with severe anterior open bite, high mandibular plane angle and a low posterior-to-anterior facial height ratio, who underwent a bimaxillary osteotomy, were prone to condylar resorption. Bone loss was predominantly found at the anterior site of the condyle. The incidence of condylar resorption was significantly higher after bimaxillary osteotomies (23%) than after only Le Fort I intrusion osteotomies (9%). Avoidance of intermaxillary fixation by using rigid internal fixation tended to reduce condylar changes, in particular in patients who underwent only a Le Fort I osteotomy. Rigid internal fixation in bimaxillary osteotomies resulted in condylar remodelling in 30% and progressive condylar resorption in 19% of the patients. Condylar changes were not significantly different after using either miniplate osteosynthesis or positional screws in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy procedures.