Carrier-dependency of cellular differentiation induced by bone morphogenetic protein in ectopic sites

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Partially purified bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was delivered into two different types of carriers, porous particles of hydroxyapatite (PPHAP) and particles of insoluble bone matrix (IBM), and the ossification process was examined after subcutaneous implantation of the BMP/PPHAP and BMP/IBM in rats. The ossification in the BMP/PPHAP system was predominantly direct through bone formation similar to intramembranous ossification, whereas in the BMP/IBM system it was predominantly endochondral. The differences observed between the BMP/PPHAP and the BMP/IBM indicate the importance of the structure and nature of the carrier in the process of bone induction. The findings suggest that bone and cartilage differentiation is controlled not only by the regulation factor (BMP), but also by its interaction with the carrier, and that the BMP-induced cell differentiation is dependent upon the microenvironment derived from the carrier.

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