The objective of the present study was to determine rotavirus etiology and prevalence of the different rotavirus serotypes in Ecuadorian children younger than 5 years of age with gastroenteritis. Children (729) less than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea from either public or private primary health care centers in 10 different provinces of Ecuador, between March 2006 and August 2006 were included in the study. Rotavirus infection was diagnosed using a commercial immunoenzymatic test. Rotavirus isolated from stool samples was genotyped. Rotavirus was detected in the feces of 269 of the 729 children (37%) with diarrhea. The most prevalent G genotypes were G9 (46.1%) and G2 (27.2%), while the predominant P genotypes were P (57%) and P (29.5%). Among the single infections, the predominant P/G combinations were: PG9 (56.9%) and PG2 (32.6%). The present countrywide survey is one of the major studies for one single season in Latin America and the first in its class in Ecuador. The value of expanding laboratory capability throughout Latin America in order to monitor rotavirus strains over time, with special attention directed at those strains obtained from children who experience vaccine failure, is critical. Only continuous monitoring of rotavirus disease burden and genotype surveillance will provide this information.