In the context of the possible introduction of a preventive vaccine against rotaviruses in Madagascar, the G and P genotypes distribution of the rotaviruses circulating in the children in Madagascar was studied, and the presence of emerging genotypes and unusual strains were assessed. From February 2008 to May 2009, 1,679 stools specimens were collected from children ≤5 years old with diarrhea. ELISA was used for antigen detection, and molecular amplification of VP7 and VP4 gene fragments was used for genotyping. Rotavirus antigen was detected in 104 samples (6.2%). Partial sequences of VP7 and VP4 genes were obtained from 81 and 80 antigen-positive stools, respectively. The most frequent G and P types combinations detected were G9P (n = 51; 64.6%), followed by G1P (n = 15; 18.9%), and G1P (n = 8; 10.1%). A few unusual G-P combinations, such as G4P (n = 3; 3.8%), G9P (n = 1; 1.3%), and G3P reassortant feline human virus (n = 1; 1.3%) were identified. Both VP4 and VP7 sequences in one of the three G4P isolates were closely related to those in porcine strains, and one was a reassortant human porcine virus. These findings give an overview of the strains circulating in Madagascar and should help public health authorities to define a vaccine strategy. J. Med. Virol. 85:1652–1660, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.