Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Pathogens Associated With HPV Infection in Cervical Samples in a Mexican Population

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Cervical cancer development has been mainly associated with persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. However, HPV infection is unlikely to be sufficient to cause cervical cancer, and the contribution of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) could be the determining factor for cervical lesion-progression. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of STIs associated with HPV-positivity in 201 cervical samples from patients who underwent annual routine gynecological exams. The overall prevalence of STIs was 57.7%, and the most frequent infection was Ureaplasma spp (UP) (39.8%), followed by Gardnerella vaginalis (GV) (25.9%), α-HPV (18.4%), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (1.5%), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) (0.5%). The highest prevalence rate of multiple non-HPV infections was observed for the age-range 31–40; for papillomavirus infection, the age-range was 21-30. In normal cervical samples, HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype (24.3%), followed by genotypes 58 (13.5%) and 52 (10.8%). Intriguingly, HPV18 was not detected in the study population, and genotypes 52 and 58 were found exclusively in samples with abnormal cytology. Papillomavirus infection with oncogenic types was significantly associated with GV (P = 0.025) and strongly associated with multiple non-HPV pathogens (P = 0.002). The following variables correlated significantly with cytological diagnosis of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL): GV (P = 0.028), multiple non-HPV infections (P = 0.001), and high-risk HPV positivity (P = 0.001). Epidemiological data from this study will contribute to the molecular detection of sexually transmitted pathogens from screening programs to identify those women who are at risk for developing cervical lesions. J. Med. Virol. 87:2098–2105, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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