Epidemiology of Rotavirus A Diarrhea in Chókwè, Southern Mozambique, From February to September, 2011

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Acute diarrhea disease caused by Rotaviruses A (RVA) is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children ≤5 years old in developing countries. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted between February and September, 2011 to determine the proportion of acute diarrhea caused by RVA. A total of 254 stool specimens were collected from children ≤5 years old with acute diarrhea, including outpatients (222 children) and inpatients (32 children), in three local health centers in Chókwè District, Gaza Province, South of Mozambique. RVA antigens were detected using enzyme immunoassay (EIA); the RVA G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotypes were determined by RT-PCR or analysis sequencing. Sixty (24%) out of 254 fecal specimens were positive for RVA by EIA; being 58 (97%) from children ≤2 years of age. RVA prevalence peaks in June and July (coldest and drier months) and the G[P] binary combination observed were G12P[8] (57%); G1P[8] (9%); G12P[6] (6%); and 2% for each of the following genotypes: G1P[6], G2P[6] G4P[6], and G9P[8]. Non-Typeable (NT) G and/or P genotypes were observed as follows: G12P [NT] (6%); G1P [NT], G3P[NT] and GNTP[NT] (4%). Considering the different GP combinations, G12 represented 67% of the genotypes. This is the first data showing the diversity of RVA genotypes in Mozambique highlighting the epidemiological importance of these viruses in acute diarrhea cases in children ≤2 years old. In addition, these findings will provide a baseline data before the introduction of the RVA monovalent (Rotarix®) vaccine in the National Immunization Program in September 2015.

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