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Accumulating experimental and clinical evidence reveals beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in kidney disease by modulating inflammation and fibrosis mechanisms that lead to renal failure.EPA, DHA (n-3 PUFAs) and AA (n-6 PUFA) effects, compared to those of AngII, on renal fibrotic processes at the extracellular matrix (ECM) level were verified in human mesangial cellsin vitro,by means of RT-PCR, mitogenic assay and Western-blot analysis.Results:Unlike AngII, EPA and DHA enhanced the expression of MMP2 and DN, a TGFβ inhibitor, while decreasing mitogenic factors such as PDGF and bFGF, and cell proliferation. Moreover, n-3 PUFAs elicited Bax expression in AngII-treated cells and downregulated COX-2 - an enzyme involved in the inflammatory cascade. The mechanism of action could implicate PPARγ activation, as this transcription factor was shown to translocate to the nucleus upon n-3 PUFA treatment.These results complement our previous reports demonstrating that EPA and DHA prevent ECM accumulation and inflammation that typify the fibrotic process, providing new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects. We confirm that n-3 PUFAs could effectively counteract kidney fibrosis development providing a rationale for their use in clinical settings.