Twenty-three-year review of disease patterns from renal biopsies: an experience from a pediatric renal center

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Background:The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics as well as their associations with trends for diseases in 1,579 pediatric renal biopsies from 1989 to 2012.Methods:The clinical and pathological data were retrospectively analyzed for children undergoing renal biopsy from 1989 to 2012 in our hospital.Results:Primary glomerulonephritis (PGN) accounted for 60.1% of total cases, followed by secondary glomerulonephritis (SGN) (31.2%) and hereditary nephropathy (8.3%). The major clinical patterns of PGN and SGN were nephritic syndrome (NS) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN), respectively. Minimal change disease/mild disease (MCD/ML), IgAN and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) were the most common pathological patterns of PGN. Male patients were most likely to suffer from NS, HBV-associated glomerulonephritis (HBVGN) or Alport syndrome, while females were most likely to suffer from isolated hematuria, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN), lupus nephritis (LN), ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis or thin basement membrane disease. The proportions of NS, isolated hematuria, acute nephritic syndrome, chronic nephritic syndrome, HBVGN, LN and hemolytic uremic syndrome changed significantly with aging. The clinical patterns of PGN were significantly correlated with the distribution of pathological types: MCD/ML and IgMN presented most often as NS; MCD/ML and IgAN presented most often as isolated hematuria; IgAN and MsPGN presented most often as hematuria with proteinuria. The spectrum of NS, HSPN, HBVGN and IgAN changed during the 23 years, and the percentage of repeated renal biopsies was low (1.2%) in pediatric cases with kidney disease.Conclusions:Glomerular diseases in children are closely related to age and sex of patient. The spectrum of kidney diseases from our center has changed significantly over the last 23 years.

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