Relationships Among Self-Efficacy, Depression, Life Satisfaction, and Adaptation Among Older Korean Adults Residing in For-Profit Professional Nursing Facilities

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Adapting to a new environment is especially difficult for older adults relocating into professional nursing facilities or other specialized care centers. This relocation is a prominent life stressor in older adults.


This study examined the self-efficacy, depression, life satisfaction, and adaptation and the relationships among these four variables of older Korean adults residing in for-profit professional nursing facilities to provide preliminary information necessary to improve nursing interventions.


This was a cross-sectional and descriptive correlation study. The 322 participants were all over the age of 65 years and resided in one of three different for-profit professional nursing facilities in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Measures used included a demographic characteristics form, Self-Efficacy Instrument, Korean Simple Depression Scale, Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument, and Facility Adaption Scale.


Results found positive self-efficacy, depression, life satisfaction, and adaptation among participants. We found significant positive correlations among self-efficacy, life satisfaction, and adaptation and significant negative correlations among depression, life satisfaction, and adaptation. Moreover, we found noticeable differences in the degree of adaptation to professional nursing facility placement in several variables, including gender, age, level of education, religious background, perceived health status, presence of a spouse, presence of a nonprofessional caregiver(s), and decision maker.

Conclusions/Implications for Practice:

This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that older Korean adults in for-profit professional nursing facilities generally maintain a healthy level of well-being. However, nursing interventions to improve self-efficacy and life satisfaction and decrease depression in older adult residents are needed to help these older adults adapt to life in such facilities.

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